Enhancing co-responsibility for patient engagement

Enhancing co-responsibility for patient engagement

Neutelings, I., Lévy, P., Djajadiningrat, T., & Hummels, C. (2017). Enhancing co-responsibility for patient engagement. The Design Journal, 20(sup1), S2273–S2283. https://doi.org/10.1080/14606925.2017.1352743

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In this paper we share a theoretical perspective of co-responsibility, developed by a consortium of a university, a private company and a hospital. On this perspective we will base design interventions towards improving the experience and specifically the engagement of cardiovascular patients after the disease has occurred, a phase referred to as secondary prevention. Co-responsibility argues that responsibilities of different people in society are intertwined with each other, not in the sense that people share the same responsibilities, but in the sense that people’s responsibilities are interdependent. We discuss the opportunities and challenges for design from a co-responsibility perspective through examples of co-responsibility encouraging design artefacts. We argue that such an approach offers the opportunity to support more sustainable engagement by attuning patients, their family and friends, and medical professionals to each other to increase their team performance, address their internal motivation and create a win-win situation.


Impact of perception theories on kansei design

Impact of perception theories on kansei design

Lévy, P. (2014). Impact of perception theories on kansei design. Journal of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering, 13(1), 21–26.

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The everyday is often mentioned in design, yet hardly inquired. The everyday is about what is banal, infraordinary, not memorable, as well as about the force that makes things habitual, endotic. In the research encompassing this paper, we question the everyday and explore opportunities to enchant it by design. This paper focuses more specifically on the design of everyday rituals, and aims to propose a descriptive framework to ‘read’ and compose such rituals. The elaboration of the framework is done based on a case study: the making of a hot chocolate in the morning. Through an autoethnographical approach, the main dimensions of the framework are determined (place and time, essentiality, and strength) and discussed. Throughout this inquiry, the value of a first-person perspective while designing for the everyday is discussed, as well as its relationship with the third- person perspective. This framework proposed points out the importance of quick iterations and of the consideration of consequences of design decision at all levels of the everyday ritual (structural, temporal, aesthetical, ethical…).


Matter of transformation, designing an alternative tomorrow inspired by phenomenology

Matter of transformation, designing an alternative tomorrow inspired by phenomenology

Hummels, C., & Lévy, P. (2013). Matter of Transformation: Designing an Alternative Tomorrow Inspired by Phenomenology. Interactions, 20(6), 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1145/2533713

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In this month’s cover story, Caroline Hummels and Pierre Lévy propose an alternative, value-based vision for design: Can we create alternative ways to engage with the world based on trusting our senses? Where intuition is as valuable as logic? Where commitment and engagement are valuable assets for growth? Where people can take a first-person perspective and be in the moment, instead of forever worrying about efficiency? Growing out of a long history of work in the Designing Quality in Interaction group at TU Eindhoven, Hummels and Lévy’s vision is rooted in phenomenology and the ideas of 20th-century philosophers such as Dewey, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Over the course of the article they build their case for this new approach, highlighting projects that illustrate aspects of the vision they outline. As the cover image hints, even typically mundane objects such as vending machines can produce rich, aesthetically rewarding experiences when their design is inspired by phenomenology and its associated values such as embodiment.


Beyond kansei engineering: the emancipation of kansei design

Beyond kansei engineering: the emancipation of kansei design

Lévy, P. (2013). Beyond kansei engineering: the emancipation of kansei design. International Journal of Design. 7(2), 83–94.

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For over three decades, kansei engineering has expanded greatly and has become a significant discipline both in the industrial and the academic worlds. In this paper, I present the current situation of kansei engineering, and plead for the emancipation of other disciplines, as part of kansei research as well. By reconstructing the historical path of kansei research and exploring the variety of disciplines within kansei research, I point out the opportunities for kansei design to emerge. Whereas kansei engineering and kansei science have found their roots in scientifically established approaches (respectively engineering and brain science), kansei design intends to return to earlier Japanese philosophical or cultural works to rediscover the essence of kansei, and to use them as inspirational means for design. This new discipline certainly needs to be elaborated further. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the elaboration of a more expansive point-of-view in design research regarding the relationship between human beings and their immediate environment.


Designing for perceptual crossing: applying and evaluating design notions

Designing for perceptual crossing: applying and evaluating design notions

Deckers, E.J.L., Lévy, P., Wensveen, S., Ahn, R., & Overbeeke, K. (2012). Designing for perceptual crossing: applying and evaluating design notions. International Journal of Design. 6(3), 41–55.

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In this paper we describe our research on how to design for perceptual crossing between person and artefact. We present the design-research process, the design and evaluation of the designed artefact PeP+, short for perception pillar plus, and the generated design relevant knowledge. In our previous research we formulated a number of design notions, namely Focus the Senses, Active Behaviour Object, Subtleness, Reaction to External Event, Detecting Active Behaviour Subject, Reflecting Contextual Noise and Course of Perception in Time. These notions are relevant for designing perceptive activity in an artefact to allow for perceptual crossing between a person and this artefact. The person is able to get the feeling of sharing a common space with the artefact: to feel involved. To further investigate these design notions we reconsidered and implemented them in the design of PeP+. We discuss how the different design notions are applied in the artefact and show their relevance in an experiment. In this experiment we compare three behaviours, namely random, following and active, of PeP+ that are the result of the development of the design notions. The experiment gave insights into the development of the design notions and the experience of the person. This research uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework. Theory is used as inspiration and is the basis for synthesis.


Involving psychophysiological knowledge in Kansei design

Involving psychophysiological knowledge in Kansei design

Lévy, P., Kim, D., Tsai, T.J., Lee, S.H., & Yamanaka, T. (2012). Involving psychophysiological knowledge in Kansei design. International Journal of Design Engineering. 5(2), 122-141. doi:10.1504/IJDE.2012.053018

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This paper introduces a design method using psychophysiological research output as an inspiration means for the design of products taking user?s Kansei highly into consideration. The development of this method is itself a part of a series of design methods based on the collaboration of the research fields of psychophysiology and design. As case studies, two design projects following this process are introduced. Firstly, the colourful rain umbrella lets its user to experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia. Secondly, the sensorial socialising smartphone informs about the user?s digital social network activity by the means of warmth, a non-invasive tactile technique. Informed by psychophysiological literature, this design is shown to be not only informational of the network activity, but also motivational towards greater social experience. This approach enables psychophysiology not only to inform and support design ideation, but also to enrich the value of the design concept by bringing new arguments.


感性価値の高い化粧品開発にむけた手法と考え方感性認知脳科学的視点から考える感性価値創造 [Kansei Science and Kansei Value Creation through Kansei, Behavioral and Brain Sciences]

感性価値の高い化粧品開発にむけた手法と考え方感性認知脳科学的視点から考える感性価値創造 [Kansei Science and Kansei Value Creation through Kansei, Behavioral and Brain Sciences]

Yamanaka, T., & Lévy, P. (2010). 感性価値の高い化粧品開発にむけた手法と考え方 感性認知脳科学的視点から考える感性価値創造 [Kansei Science and Kansei Value Creation through Kansei, Behavioral and Brain Sciences]. Cosmetic Stage. 4(33), 1-11.

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The Repertory Grid Technique as a Method for the Study of Cultural Differences

The Repertory Grid Technique as a Method for the Study of Cultural Differences

Tomico, O., Karapanos, E., Lévy, P., Mizutani, N., & Yamanaka, T. (2009). The Repertory Grid Technique as a Method for the Study of Cultural Differences. International Journal of Design. 3(3), 55-63.

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Culture is typically approached in the field of design through generic, cross-domain constructs. In this paper we provide an alternative methodological approach to exploring cross-cultural differences by studying the idiosyncratic views of individuals with regard to existing products. We operationalize this approach through the Repertory Grid Technique, a structured interview technique motivated by Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory, and propose a content-analytic procedure combining quantitative and qualitative information. We further propose the use of three distinct metrics in the analysis of personal constructs: dominance, importance, and descriptive richness. Dominance of a construct is measured through the relative percentage of a construct category over the total sample of constructs. Importance is measured through the elicitation order; this assumes that constructs elicited first are more salient and important to the individual. Descriptive richness relates to the diversity of a class of constructs. Some constructs might be uni-dimensional while others might tap to a number of distinct facets. The use of these indices enables the quantification of the different ways in which individuals perceive and differentiate between products. By identifying how individuals respond to a rich set of stimuli within a given domain, we inquire into their values and the qualities they appreciate within this restricted domain. Cultural values are thus explored in relation to a set of stimuli. We tested this procedure through an exploration of the ways 17 Dutch and 16 Japanese industrial designers valued a set of pens.


Kansei Studies Description and Mapping through Kansei Study Keywords

Kansei Studies Description and Mapping through Kansei Study Keywords

Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2009). Kansei Studies Description and Mapping through Kansei Study Keywords. Kansei Engineering International. 8(2), 179–185.

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The aim of this paper is to present the project undertaken by the authors to describe Kansei and to structure Kansei design studies. Indeed, the current fuzziness on Kansei research structure complicates the global comprehension of this field and seems to be a hindrance to Kansei design education and internationalisation. To improve both of these aspects, this paper proposes a comprehensive description of Kansei and Kansei Studies, explains its specificity compared to “classic” research fields, and introduces a list of 131 Kansei Study Keywords which will be used in further projects to structure Kansei sources of knowledge and improve Kansei knowledge development, Kansei research, and Kansei education.


Neural networks involved in artistic creativity

Neural networks involved in artistic creativity

Kowatari, Y., Lee, S.H., Yamamura, H., Nagamori, Y., Lévy, P., Yamane, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2009). Neural networks involved in artistic creativity. Human Brain Mapping. 30(5), 1678–1690. doi:10.1002/hbm.20633

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Creativity has been proposed to be either the result of solely right hemisphere processes or of interhemispheric interactions. Little information is available, however, concerning the neuronal foundations of creativity. In this study, we introduced a new artistic task, designing a new tool (a pen), which let us quantitatively evaluate creativity by three indices of originality. These scores were analyzed in combination with brain activities measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results were compared between subjects who had been formally trained in design (experts) and novice subjects. In the experts, creativity was quantitatively correlated with the degree of dominance of the right prefrontal cortex over that of the left, but not with that of the right or left prefrontal cortex alone. In contrast, in novice subjects, only a negative correlation with creativity was observed in the bilateral inferior parietal cortex. We introduced structure equation modeling to analyze the interactions among these four brain areas and originality indices. The results predicted that training exerts a direct effect on the left parietal cortex. Additionally, as a result of the indirect effects, the activity of the right prefrontal cortex was facilitated, and the left prefrontal and right parietal cortices were suppressed. Our results supported the hypothesis that training increases creativity via reorganized intercortical interactions.


Interdisciplinary workgroup methodology based on Intuition, Application to a communication tool design based on Kansei information approach

Interdisciplinary workgroup methodology based on Intuition, Application to a communication tool design based on Kansei information approach

Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2006). Interdisciplinary workgroup methodology based on Intuition – Application to a communication tool design based on Kansei information approach. Kansei Engineering International. 5(4), 31–40.

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The artifact is a complex element. Besides its elementary dimensions (material, functional and formal), the artifact is composed of much more dimensions: ergonomic, emotional, cultural, and even ethologic or theological. To take into account this great quantity and diversity of dimensions, the designer’s work has to be widened out. Necessarily, this goes through an interdisciplinary approach, i.e. through an interdisciplinary workgroup activity. Nevertheless, this brings issues, notably concerning knowledge communication and sharing. For each variety of knowledge (tacit, prescriptive and descriptive), interdisciplinary activity provokes issues either because of disciplinary ontology differences, or because of human subjective understanding differences. Intuition is a mental process which is able to minimize these issue effects. We then propose a methodology based on intuition, structured on the theory of Ba, on the SECI Model, which an evoked metaphor (EM) is added to. Through the EM, each member of the workgroup is able to participate to every steps of the design process and to communicate with other members, thanks to an intuitive understanding permanently validated by involved disciplines. This creates an efficient interdisciplinary dynamics and the realization of fully interdisciplinary projects. To illustrate this methodology, the design of MATiK is introduced as an example. MATiK is an original workgroup communication system based on a Kansei information approach. In order to understand the expected functionalities of MATiK and to design it, the EM is set up. Considering basic aspects of an extensive workgroup operative process, the Loft is defined as an EM. The Loft offers an opportunity to understand MATiK’s original functionalities, MATiK’s design, and MATiK’s functional and technical requirements intuitively. This methodology, based on the EM, asserts its relevancy for interdisciplinary design. Its strength comes from the fact that the EM links all the levels of the design process (the idea/concept level, the reality level, and the technical level) and makes their understanding accessible to all members thanks to intuition.