EN | FR
Maarten L. Smith, Sander van der Zwan, Jelle P. Bruineberg, Pierre D. Lévy, and Caroline C. M. Hummels. 2021. Scaffolding shared imagination with tangible design. In Fifteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (TEI ’21), February 14–17, 2021, Salzburg, Austria. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 9 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3430524.3440639
publications 17 February 2021 2021-02-17T23:17:05+01:00 We follow up on a prominent line of work in which principles of embodied cognition are employed to not only account for skilled coping but also for more intellectual activities such as remembering and imagination. Imagination then, is not a reflective activity an individual does by herself, but a shared and embodied activity scaffolded by tangible design. We present a case study in which we designed a toolkit to facilitate imagining the Netherlands in 2050. We wrote speculative stories of people living in 2050 and designed an assortment of objects. We held several workshops to use the toolkit for shared imagination for our client, Rijkswaterstaat. We analyze how, in the context of the workshops, the stories and objects provided affordances for shared imagination. We thereby hope to have demonstrated that it is possible to design for more intellectual activities in a tangible and embodied way.
Lévy, P. (2020). Artefactual emptiness - On appropriation in kansei design. Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2020, KEER2020. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 30 August 2020 2020-08-30T17:03:37+02:00 Appropriation is the phenomenon by which an artefact is adapted for a specific use, distinct from the original design intention. By essence, it cannot be planned by design. However, it is a major aspect in the experience one may have in interaction with an artefact, as it leads to the feelings of ownership and to the effective situatedness of the artefact. It is therefore significantly contributing to designing for sustainability and for the everyday. This paper intends to address how design can consider the possibility of appropriation. Taking a kansei design approach, inspired from the nishidian philosophy on perception, we introduce the notion of artefactual emptiness as a space provided by design and left to the user to adapt the artefact for its integration in the habitability of the world. This space is made accessible and inviting by involving irregularities, suggested by Yanagi Soetsu as a means towards beauty, and implemented in design through micro-considerations and micro-frictions. Artefactual emptiness leads to beauty in experience, expected from a kansei perspective and made possible by kansei design. This work on appropriation through kansei design also leads to question the attention appropriation should have in other domains of kansei research, especially kansei evaluation. It calls for finding ways in kansei research to evaluate over time the kansei effect of appropriation on experience.
Wada, K., van Renswouw, L. M., Wallner, G., Levy, P. D., & Vos, S. B. (2020). Studying requirements for designing a vitality data sharing platform from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research (KEER 2020), Tokyo, Japan.
publications 29 August 2020 2020-08-29T16:39:07+02:00 We see a growing interest in sharing data and a growing desire to give meaning and understanding to data. Data sharing has great potential to promote people’s health and vitality by encouraging collaboration across a variety of parties. Nevertheless, the use of data lags behind due to the lack of consideration of various users’ requirements in designing data sharing platforms. Despite the needs of the socio-technical aspect for designing data platforms, studies in this regard are still limited. In this paper, we present our study to understand diverse requirements from stakeholders for the development of a vitality data sharing platform by identifying what kind of data is related to vitality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two groups of stakeholders: (i) representatives of organizations involved in vitality (N=8), and (ii) citizens (N=20). From these interviews, we see that vitality and vitality data are multidimensional and got an insight into the different expectations on such a data platform among the stakeholders. The representatives of organizations involved in vitality, generally expect low-level data. On the other hand, citizens strive to gain more general information. Our findings suggest that various levels of information are required on data platforms as well as social discussion features to enhance the connection among multi-stakeholder.
van der Zwan, S., Smith, M. L., Bruineberg, J., Lévy, P., & Hummels, C. C. M. (2020). Philosophy at Work - Postphenomenology as a Generative Lens in Design Research and Practice. Proceedings of the Design Research Society 2020, DRS2020, Sydney, Australia (online). https://doi.org/10.21606/drs.2020.337
publications 14 August 2020 2020-08-14T08:55:25+02:00 We investigate the use of five postphenomenological concepts by bringing them to design practice and using them as a “generative lens” in design research. The use of these concepts in design research creates tension between the general and the particular. In a constructive design research process, we resolve this tension. We follow two complementary lines of inquiry: first, we design a ritual to support a postphenomenological analysis of the workplace. We discuss insights regarding ordering and formulation of the concepts, selecting a technological intermediary and assessing technologies. In the second, we use postphenomenology as a generative lens in designing the ritual. We discuss the iterative process in which the designer shapes specific uses by proposing different designs and reflecting on them using postphenomenological concepts. These reflections point to a responsibility of the designer to incorporate ways of being, ways of knowing and values on top of specific uses and utility.
van den Heuvel, R., Lévy, P., Vos, S., & Hummels, C. (2020). Exploring Public Playgrounds through A Data-Enabled Design Approach. Companion Publication of the 2020 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference, DIS2020, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1145/3393914.3395865
publications 20 July 2020 2020-07-20T18:08:42+02:00 A shared goal set by many local governments is to stimulate physical activity in neighborhoods. Public playgrounds play an important role in governmental policies for promoting physical activity. Although these playgrounds are generally considered beneficial for participation in physical activity, detailed data on their use is lacking. As a result, it is not clear to policymakers whether their policy choices are the right ones and designers cannot sufficiently align their design choices with the actual behavior of their end users. This Work-in-Progress presents a sensor-based data collection approach to collect detailed data in a real-life setting over a longer period of time. With this, we adapted the Data-Enabled Design process towards public environments by combining a quantitative sensor implementation alongside qualitative research. We show findings from two months of data collection on seven playgrounds and discuss next steps in the Data-Enabled Design framework.
Nieuweboer, I., Damen, I., Brombacher, H., Lévy, P., Vos, S., & Lallemand, C. (2020). The Office Jungle: A Vision for Wildness to Turn Offices into Jungles. Companion Publication of the 2020 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference, 341–344. https://doi.org/10.1145/3393914.3395818
publications 20 July 2020 2020-07-20T17:08:42+02:00 The Office Jungle is an experimental office environment designed to make offices more “wild”. Through this demonstration and associated design vision, we make a first attempt to reflect on and to define what characterizes wildness and how it could empower people in more playful and active lifestyles, particularly in the workplace. In our understanding, wildness is not an exclusive property of nature, but rather a condition that can be designed for. How wildness can be designed is described here in a set of design principles called “Design for Wildness”, inspired by the work of Gibson. The Office Jungle, a large geodesic sphere of 2 meters in diameter, is part and parcel of these design principles and can be used as a tool to design other wild environments. Such environments could benefit people working in the office, many of whom have been suffering the consequences of a sedentary lifestyle.
Hummels, C., Trotto, A., Peeters, J., Lévy, P., Alves Lino, J. & Klooster, S. (2019). Design research and innovation framework for transformative practices. In Strategy for change (pp. 52-76). Glasgow, UK: Glasgow Caledonian University. ISBN: 978-972-789-482-6
publications 23 September 2019 2019-09-23T13:46:08+02:00 In this chapter, the concept of Transformative Practices is introduced, i.e. shared relative steady ways of living and working with others (Wittgenstein, 1993), including specific configurations of actions, norms and knowledge (Freeman et al., 2011) and related tools and environments, focused at addressing our societal challenges, by transforming (elevating) our personal and social ethics and related behaviour through designing new ways of interaction with each other and the world. Through design research and innovation within these practices, we work together towards social-culturally, environmentally and economically sustainable communities.
Lévy, P. (2019). Designing for the everyday through thusness and irregularity. In Proceedings of 8th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research, IASDR 2019. Manchester, UK: Manchester Metropolitan University.
publications 04 September 2019 2019-09-04T15:00:40+02:00 The concept of ‘everyday’ is a central topic in design, and this paper argues for more attention and discussion on the everyday than what is currently done in design research. By elaborating what the everyday is, designers can better formulate a perspective on people’s lives and experiences, and therefore can better contribute to the enchantment of the everyday through designing. To contribute to this effort of clarification and enchantment, we first attempt to clarify the concept of everyday and thereafter suggest notions originating from Japanese philosophy to address the everyday in design. The everyday is described mostly through the process of quotidianisation of the unfamiliar towards the familiar. To support designing for the everyday, we propose to focus on Japanese notions: thusness and irregularity. Thusness invites to consider the experience of the here-and-now as being the active relation with the entirety of the world through interaction. Irregularity invites to keep something unexplained in the design, eliciting possibilities of exploration, openness, change, and the shift of perspective. Finally, three relatively practical design concepts, namely micro-considerations, micro-frictions, and (es)sential details, are proposed to support application of thusness and irregularity through design.
Muller, D.A., & Lévy, P. (2019). A Design Approach towards Affording the Trend of Privacy. In Design Interactive Systems Conference, DIS19. New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3322276.3322324
publications 28 June 2019 2019-06-28T12:29:52+02:00 Society is affected by the consequences of data collection, and there are trends visible in law, the public debate and technology that could make a privacy-conscious future possible. We study how to avoid data collection from the perspective and the role of design, to provide a starting point for new developments in this context. We do so by presenting a portfolio that exemplifies a range of possible design contributions. We show how to design smart products for retail and smart home while avoiding data collection, how to convince clients through design, and how to use design to spread awareness. We present design notions and reflections that stem from this portfolio for the synthesis of new designs, that further explore the potential of design in practice that affords the trend of privacy.
Lévy, P. (2018). Le temps de l'expérience, Enchanter le quotidien par le design. Compiègne University of Technology, France
publications 18 November 2018 2018-11-18T13:00:33+01:00 The Japanese tea ceremony is an experiential moment of aesthetics and ethics of the everyday, a harmony between objects, beings, places, and practices. It underlines that everyday objects, heart of our material culture, exhibit a profound beauty, uphold a remarkable ethics, and yet go unnoticed. At the crossing of a reflection on a Japanese approach on design through the study of kansei, and a reflection on design in HCI based on embodiment theories, this research inquires first the western cultural hegemony of design in HCI, and second sets a cultural decentration of the discipline taking Japanese philosophy and culture as theory. This results in a novel perspective on design and designing, supported by an ethics of relation, an experience of thusness, and an aesthetics of irregularities. This perspective invites design to enchant the everyday, enabling to consider details of reality as it is lived, and to create unexpected moments, source of surprises and new possible outcomes. Therefore, inviting to culturally decentre design, this research suggests an original approach to design for the everyday, and contributes to find in it a major esthetical and ethical source, towards human development, as well as one’s sensitivity, and one’s values.
Lévy, P. (2018). Contemplating the Impossible, presented at Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. October 19th, 2018.
publications 19 October 2018 2018-10-19T10:30:52+02:00 Times ago, discussing this symposium with Stephan, the idea was to have one eye looking back at what Kees brought to us and hoped for the design community, and to have the other eye on the future trying to tell our current students, to remind our alumni and ourselves some aspects Kees carried through his work, that we may bring further. I have the honour and the challenge to operate this eye gymnastic and to share with you today what I see.
Lévy, P. (2018). The beauty of making hot chocolate – an inquiry on designing for everyday rituals. In Design Research Society 2018, DRS2018. Limerick, Ireland: Design Research Society. https://doi.org/10.21606/dma.2017.514
publications 28 June 2018 2018-06-28T15:04:28+02:00 The everyday is often mentioned in design, yet hardly inquired. The everyday is about what is banal, infraordinary, not memorable, as well as about the force that makes things habitual, endotic. In the research encompassing this paper, we question the everyday and explore opportunities to enchant it by design. This paper focuses more specifically on the design of everyday rituals, and aims to propose a descriptive framework to ‘read’ and compose such rituals. The elaboration of the framework is done based on a case study: the making of a hot chocolate in the morning. Through an autoethnographical approach, the main dimensions of the framework are determined (place and time, essentiality, and strength) and discussed. Throughout this inquiry, the value of a first-person perspective while designing for the everyday is discussed, as well as its relationship with the third-person perspective. This framework proposed points out the importance of quick iterations and of the consideration of consequences of design decision at all levels of the everyday ritual (structural, temporal, aesthetical, ethical…).
Lokman, A.M., Yamanaka, T., Lévy, P., Chen, K., Koyama, S. (Eds). 2018. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research 2018 – KEER2018. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. ISBN: 978-981-10-8612-0.
publications 22 March 2018 2018-03-22T23:44:38+01:00 The proceedings gather a selection of refereed papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research 2018 (KEER 2018), which was held in Kuching, Malaysia from 19 to 22 March 2018. The contributions address the latest advances in and innovative applications of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research. The subjects include: – Kansei, Emotion and Games – Kansei, Emotion and Computing – Kansei, Emotion and Wellbeing / Quality of Life – Kansei, Emotion and Design – Kansei, Emotion and Health / Ergonomics – Kansei, Emotion and Multidisciplinary Fields – Kansei, Emotion and Culture – Kansei, Emotion and Social computing – Kansei, Emotion and Evaluation – Kansei, Emotion and User Experience The book offers a valuable resource for all graduate students, experienced researchers and industrial practitioners interested in the fields of user experience/usability, engineering design, human factors, quality management, product development and design.
Janssen, M. A., Heuvel, R. van den, Megens, C. J. P. G., Levy, P. D. & Vos, S. B. (2018). Analysis of the design and engineering-process towards a first prototype in the field of sports and vitality. In Proceedings of 12th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association, 2(6), 297. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2060297
publications 22 February 2018 2018-02-22T23:14:50+01:00 The scope of technology has expanded towards areas such as sports and vitality, offering significant challenges for engineering designers. However, only little is known about the underlying design and engineering processes used within these fields. Therefore, this paper aims to get an in- depth understanding of these type of processes. During a three-day design competition (Hackathon), three groups of engineers were challenged to develop experience-able prototypes in the field of sports and vitality. Their process was monitored based on the Reflective Transformative Design process (RTD-process) framework, describing the various activities part of the design process. Groups had to keep track of their activities, and six group reflection-sessions were held. Results show that all groups used an open and explorative approach, they frequently swapped between activities, making them able to reflect on their actions. While spending more time on envisioning and creating a clear vision seem to relate to the quality of the design concept.
Dassen, W., Wensveen, S., & Lévy, P. (2017). Light Behavior Design: Violation of Unification Principles and the Effect on the User Experience. In Design Interactive Systems Conference, DIS17 (pp. 259–263). New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3064857.3079157
publications 14 June 2017 2017-06-14T23:20:07+02:00 Technological advances increase the possibilities for the aesthetics of interaction and the user experience. This is a growing field in the Human-Computer Interaction community (HCI). However, Lenz et al.  show that little is known about the relation between experiences and interaction. The current study explores this relation through the design of an interactive lamp. We compare a direct and a delayed coupling between the user’s action and the reaction of the light. The results provide empirical evidence that deliberately violating one of the unification principles (i.e., delayed response) triggers a more positively engaged experience. We discuss the result and further implications for design research.
Neutelings, I., Lévy, P., Djajadiningrat, T., & Hummels, C. (2017). Enhancing co-responsibility for patient engagement. The Design Journal, 20(sup1), S2273–S2283. https://doi.org/10.1080/14606925.2017.1352743
publications 14 April 2017 2017-04-14T19:19:56+02:00 In this paper we share a theoretical perspective of co-responsibility, developed by a consortium of a university, a private company and a hospital. On this perspective we will base design interventions towards improving the experience and specifically the engagement of cardiovascular patients after the disease has occurred, a phase referred to as secondary prevention. Co-responsibility argues that responsibilities of different people in society are intertwined with each other, not in the sense that people share the same responsibilities, but in the sense that people’s responsibilities are interdependent. We discuss the opportunities and challenges for design from a co-responsibility perspective through examples of co-responsibility encouraging design artefacts. We argue that such an approach offers the opportunity to support more sustainable engagement by attuning patients, their family and friends, and medical professionals to each other to increase their team performance, address their internal motivation and create a win-win situation.
Lévy, P., & Yamada, S. (2017). 3D-modeling and 3D-printing explorations on Japanese tea ceremony utensils. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interactions, TEI17. Yokohama, Japan: ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/3024969.3024990
publications 23 March 2017 2017-03-23T23:11:05+01:00 Technological advances increase the possibilities for the aesthetics of interaction and the user experience. This is a growing field in the Human-Computer Interaction community (HCI). However, Lenz et al.  show that little is known about the relation between experiences and interaction. The current study explores this relation through the design of an interactive lamp. We compare a direct and a delayed coupling between the user’s action and the reaction of the light. The results provide empirical evidence that deliberately violating one of the unification principles (i.e., delayed response) triggers a more positively engaged experience. We discuss the result and further implications for design research.
Lévy, P., & Hengeveld B.J. (2016). What matters for ritual visualization – Towards a design tool for the description and the composition of rituals. Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2016, KEER2016. Leeds, UK: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 02 September 2016 2016-09-02T23:06:45+02:00 Our lives are highly shaped by rituals. The way we wake up, the way we prepare tea or coffee are two of the many rituals many of us have constructed. As they structure our everyday lives, it is crucial to understand how to design them from a kansei design perspective. This Research-through-Design inquiry contributes to a larger research of addressing the way to design rituals. An annotated showcase of three ritual design projects is proposed. From the analysis of these three projects, we suggest 11 points of attention for the construction of a ritual visualization tool. This tool is expected to be used not only to support the analysis and the assessment of rituals, but also to contribute to the composition of rituals, towards the design of experientially rich rituals from an interaction perspective.
Kennedy, R., & Lévy, P. (2016). Reinventing the (steering) wheel – A kansei design approach for novel driving experience. Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2016, KEER2016. Leeds, UK: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 02 September 2016 2016-09-02T22:55:03+02:00 Over the last decades, the integration of digital technology in the automotive industry has caused important transformations for interaction design in regards with secondary controls, but much less in regards with primary controls. However, not only primary controls remain the dominant artefact to interact with in the driving experience, but also distracted drivers (i.e., interacting with secondary controls or other artefacts while driving) are a major reason of accidents. In this paper, we introduce a design project on the steering wheel, taken from a kansei design perspective. Based on a kansei design framework, structured by three stages (Expression, Gesture, Affect), we observed the way drivers interact with various forms of steering wheel in order to create design propositions for greater and safer driving experiences in the context of novel driving conditions, i.e., with novel technologies and recent driving techniques. This overall project aims at revisiting fully the driving experience, while inquiring further the framing of a direct kansei design approach.
Terken, J., Lévy, P., Wang, W., Karjanto, J., Yusof, N.M.., Ros, F., & Zwaan, S. (2016). Gesture-Based and Haptic Interfaces for Connected and Autonomous Driving. In I.L., Nunes (Eds.) Advances in Human Factors and System Interactions, Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and System Interactions, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA (pp. 107-115). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41956-5_11
publications 31 July 2016 2016-07-31T15:17:29+02:00 While user interfaces for in-vehicle systems in the market are mostly button- and screen-based, advances in electronic technology provide designers with new design opportunities. In this paper, we propose applications of these novel technologies for several aspects of the current and future driving context. We explore opportunities for gesture-based and haptic interfaces in three different areas: establishing shared control between the driver and the autonomous vehicle; providing situation awareness to users of autonomous vehicles while engaged in other activities; connecting drivers to fellow drivers. We argue that these interface technologies hold the promise of creating richer and more natural interaction than the traditional vision- and audio-based interfaces that dominate the current market. We conclude by outlining steps for further research.
Lévy, P. (2016). Perspectives en design d’interaction, presented at La Pré-Fabrique de l’innovation – UdL, Saint-Étienne. June 10th, 2016
publications 10 June 2016 2016-06-10T22:02:04+02:00 Dans l’esprit de pluridisciplinarité qui a animé le worshop #illuminov – éclairage connecté lors de la semaine du 25 au 29 avril dernier, j’ai le plaisir de vous convier à la présentation de Pierre Lévy, assistant professor en design à l’Université de Technologie de Eindhoven, qui se tiendra le vendredi 10 juin à la Pré-Fabrique de l’innovation à 14h30. Au travers de ses travaux de recherche, Pierre Lévy s’intéresse à l’implication des théories de la perception et de la phénoménologie, dans les domaines du design d’interaction (embodied interaction design) et du design Kansei (regard japonais sur la sensibilité et l’affectif) – sujet pour lequel il a été invité de nombreuses fois pour des conférences à l’internationale. Diplômé d’une thèse en science du Kansei de l’Université de Tsukuba au Japon, il est actuellement président-élu du Groupe Européen du Kansei (EKG).<br>Lors de cette présentation, nous discuterons de l’approche en constructive design research, et la perspective qu’elle propose sur l’attention réciproque entre l’homme et l’artefact, et sur la notion d’”irrésistibilité” en design d’interaction.<br>Cette approche ouvrira sur l’exploration menée par Pierre Lévy en “design de rituels”, qui se place à l’intersection du design kansei et et du design de systèmes. La présentation se construira autour d’exemples de projets concrets développés par l’Université de Technologie de Eindhoven, susceptibles d’intéresser tout autant les chercheurs que les praticiens du design. L’intervention et les échanges se feront en français. Fabien Labarthe (IRAM-Télécom Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire Elico, Centre Max Weber).
Marti, P., Frens, J., Hengeveld, B., & Lévy P. (Eds). 2016. Interaction Design and Architecture(s), special issue: On Making. ISSN: 1826-9745.
publications 22 March 2016 2016-03-22T23:38:46+01:00 Ask people about the great breakthroughs in human life and you will hear answers such as “when man made fire” or “the invention of the wheel” or “electricity”. All moments where humankind gained more control over their world through something “man-made”. Man is a maker. But even though the act of making in itself seems to be a stable, integral part of our being, how we make is far from stable. Moreover, with every new innovation new forms of making have opened up. We base this on the notion that ‘making’ and ‘thinking’ are thoroughly intertwined: our tools for making also shape our thoughts about making; we think through our tools and material.
Lévy, P. (2015). Exploring the challenge of designing rituals. In V., Popovic, A., Blackler, & B., Kraal (Eds.), the Proceedings of 6th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research, IASDR 2015. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.
publications 05 November 2015 2015-11-05T23:00:52+01:00 Our lives are a collection of rituals. The way we wake up, the way we leave or enter our home are two of the many rituals each of us have constructed, and they structure our everyday lives. However, designing rituals remains challenging because of the nested structures of events within a ritual (temporal complexity) and the required consistency between the ritual and the involved artifacts. In this first Research-through-Design iteration, we introduce a workshop done to explore the way to design rituals from an interaction design perspective. Our inquiry addresses such approach and aims at proposing tools to support the design or the evaluation of daily rituals. The workshop was structured by a introduction session (a Japanese tea ceremony) and two iterations leading towards the design of a high-resolution ritual and required artifacts for welcoming people home for Dutch students. Findings mainly pointed out different starting points for designing rituals, suggested the pervasive effect of engagement in rituals, and proposed a descriptive tool to provide the designer with participants’ perspectives in and affect by the ritual.
Duel, T., & Lévy, P. (2015). The Chatter Door, designing for in-between spaces. In V., Popovic, A., Blackler, & B., Kraal (Eds.), the Proceedings of 6th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research, IASDR 2015. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.
publications 11 May 2015 2015-05-11T22:37:10+02:00 The project presented in this paper is part of a broader research addressing in-between spaces and the designing of experiences taking place there. The project focuses on door frames, and inquires the way to improve social interactions taking place ‘at the door’. To do so, the approach is structured on an Experiential Design Landscape in order to create an in- between space with audio traces and to evaluate these traces impact on people’s behavior change. Our hypothesis is that sound traces triggers behavior changes. Evaluation is done quantitatively through the measurement of the door movements, and qualitatively based on laddering techniques mapped out in a mean-end chain. The results show no significant impact of the audio traces on people’s behavior change. However, emotional reactions could be observed. Although this first step revokes our hypothesis, it also has provided insight for further inquiry on in-between spaces.
Lévy, P. (2014). Impact of perception theories on kansei design. Journal of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering, 13(1), 21–26.
publications 06 September 2014 2014-09-06T13:36:40+02:00 The everyday is often mentioned in design, yet hardly inquired. The everyday is about what is banal, infraordinary, not memorable, as well as about the force that makes things habitual, endotic. In the research encompassing this paper, we question the everyday and explore opportunities to enchant it by design. This paper focuses more specifically on the design of everyday rituals, and aims to propose a descriptive framework to ‘read’ and compose such rituals. The elaboration of the framework is done based on a case study: the making of a hot chocolate in the morning. Through an autoethnographical approach, the main dimensions of the framework are determined (place and time, essentiality, and strength) and discussed. Throughout thizs inquiry, the value of a first-person perspective while designing for the everyday is discussed, as well as its relationship with the third- person perspective. This framework proposed points out the importance of quick iterations and of the consideration of consequences of design decision at all levels of the everyday ritual (structural, temporal, aesthetical, ethical…).
Lévy, P. (2014). Perception Theories and Kansei Design. In P., Lévy, S., Schütte, & T., Yamanaka (Eds.), the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2014, KEER2014 (pp 287–297). Linköping, Sweden: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 13 August 2014 2014-08-13T22:46:54+02:00 Approaches to create artifacts taking kansei into consideration are multiple and are shared among various disciplines, such as kansei engineering, kansei science, and kansei design. In this paper, I focus on the discipline of kansei design and show that various approaches exist within this discipline. These can be characterized based on their focus: either the physical or the interactive materiality of the artifact. Indirect kansei design, mostly focusing on the physical materiality, is based on indirect (or mediated) perception theories. It often relies on representations, models, and metaphors to provide meaningful input to the design. Direct kansei design, mostly focusing on the interactive materiality, is based on direct (or ecological) perception theories. It mainly relies on the designerly attitude of the designer in the process, and apprehend design meaning to emerge from the reflection upon design exploration within the process. Describing and differentiating these two approaches show how kansei is considered differently by different approaches of kansei deign, looking forward a dialogue between these approaches in order to obtain a greater insight on kansei and on its consideration for designing.
Kint, J., Klooster, S., & Lévy, P. (2014). Rite de transition – a design choreographic exploration of cultural value exchange, through development of intercultural ritual artefacts. In P., Lévy, S., Schütte, & T., Yamanaka (Eds.), the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2014, KEER2014 (pp 1115–1125). Linköping, Sweden: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 13 August 2014 2014-08-13T22:41:15+02:00 This research project is called Rite de transition. By means of DesignChoreography, an approach developed by Sietske Klooster, we explore the rituals revolving around traditional Turkish marriage. In due course, inspired by an emotional and auto-ethnographic interpretation of the explored rituals, Klooster designs a novel ritual and artefact that intend to embody shared values, hence intercultural exchange. We choose for a bodily first person approach as we estimate that the complexities of the modern world – i.e. cultural clashes and the breakdown of cultures – require a radical change in tackling these issues. We suggest to move away from pure rational analytic approach our society adhered to. We are on the verge of a new era that embraces diversity and organic interaction that cannot and does not have to be standardized, fixed or rigidly defined anymore. Our approach is based on embodiment and phenomenology, allowing us to diverge from narrowing down broad societal and cultural issues to mere rational thinking and judging. We use DesignChoreography as a vehicle, since the knowing and making body can experience meanings and values that lie underneath visual appearance. By doing so we bring about our bodily understanding for intercultural interaction and exchange.
Lévy, P. (2013). The bases of direct interaction design, presented at Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan. December 3rd, 2013.
publications 03 December 2013 2013-12-03T21:39:49+01:00
Lévy, P. (2013). Direct interaction design, presented at Musashino Art University, Tokyo, Japan. November 19th, 2013.
publications 19 November 2013 2013-11-19T21:29:03+01:00
Lévy, P. (2013). Exploring constituents for kansei design, towards a framework. the Proceedings of 5th International Congress of International Association of Societies of Design Research, IASDR 2013 (pp 148–159). Tokyo, Japan: Shibaura University of Technology.
publications 12 September 2013 2013-09-12T22:31:09+02:00 Next to the well-developed and recognized kansei engineering and kansei science, the discipline of kansei design still appears as emerging and explorative. In this paper, after presenting succinctly the theoretical basis of the first two disciplines, I compare them with and focus more in detail on the bases of kansei design, along with an inspiration in Japanese philosophy and culture. In order to structure further the discipline, necessary for the creation of a robust and specific design framework, I describe the constituents of the discipline, i.e., the notions the designers should take into consideration to either describe and explore kansei through designing, or to reflect upon and validate kansei designs (especially interactivity aspects). Finally, these constituents are illustrated by two kansei design projects showing their value and the current explorations done on the topic of interactive materiality in kansei design.
Hummels, C., & Lévy, P. (2013). Matter of Transformation: Designing an Alternative Tomorrow Inspired by Phenomenology. Interactions, 20(6), 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1145/2533713
publications 10 September 2013 2013-09-10T20:07:29+02:00 In this month’s cover story, Caroline Hummels and Pierre Lévy propose an alternative, value-based vision for design: Can we create alternative ways to engage with the world based on trusting our senses? Where intuition is as valuable as logic? Where commitment and engagement are valuable assets for growth? Where people can take a first-person perspective and be in the moment, instead of forever worrying about efficiency? Growing out of a long history of work in the Designing Quality in Interaction group at TU Eindhoven, Hummels and Lévy’s vision is rooted in phenomenology and the ideas of 20th-century philosophers such as Dewey, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Over the course of the article they build their case for this new approach, highlighting projects that illustrate aspects of the vision they outline. As the cover image hints, even typically mundane objects such as vending machines can produce rich, aesthetically rewarding experiences when their design is inspired by phenomenology and its associated values such as embodiment.
Lévy, P. (2013). Beyond kansei engineering: the emancipation of kansei design. International Journal of Design. 7(2), 83–94
publications 10 September 2013 2013-09-10T19:25:35+02:00 For over three decades, kansei engineering has expanded greatly and has become a significant discipline both in the industrial and the academic worlds. In this paper, I present the current situation of kansei engineering, and plead for the emancipation of other disciplines, as part of kansei research as well. By reconstructing the historical path of kansei research and exploring the variety of disciplines within kansei research, I point out the opportunities for kansei design to emerge. Whereas kansei engineering and kansei science have found their roots in scientifically established approaches (respectively engineering and brain science), kansei design intends to return to earlier Japanese philosophical or cultural works to rediscover the essence of kansei, and to use them as inspirational means for design. This new discipline certainly needs to be elaborated further. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the elaboration of a more expansive point-of-view in design research regarding the relationship between human beings and their immediate environment.
Lévy, P. (2013). Holism and kansei design – kansei beyond borders, presented at the International Colloquium on Kansei and Design 2013, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. August 30th, 2013.
publications 30 August 2013 2013-08-30T21:55:59+02:00
Lévy, P. (2013). Portfolio for the University Teaching Qualification (BKO). Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
publications 30 August 2013 2013-08-30T15:39:24+02:00 My name is Pierre Lévy. I am currently assistant professor at the Department of Industrial Design of Eindhoven University of Technology. I have been studying in France, in Canada, and in Japan. I have studied mathematics, mechanical engineering, psychophysiology, and design (which has been the continuous topic over my studies). I have been working in companies in France and in Japan, and in universities in Japan, in France, and in The Netherlands. My teachings have touched upon design, cognitive science, phenomenology, Japanese culture, and psychophysiology (all topics in regard to design). From this I can satisfactorily see that I have been ‘travelling’ in the world of design education, and writing for the BKO portfolio is for me an opportunity to step back, and reflect on my vision, my role, and my work as an educator.
Hillen, V., & Lévy, P. (2013). People, Place, Process: Lessons Learnt on the Path to a d.school. the Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design 2013, ICED13 ([on CD]). Seoul, Korea: The Design Society.
publications 13 June 2013 2013-06-13T22:26:48+02:00 Since 2006, Design Thinking education programs for master-level students have been developed at Ponts ParisTech, a leading French engineering school. This paper presents a longitudinal study of the creation and dissemination of Design Thinking (DT) as a discipline to educate top-level French students for innovation. From 2006 to 2012, 53 projects were carried out by a total of 224 students. A review is made of the instructional design of those DT projects, from local experiments through the creation of a d.school supported by the French Ministry of Education and Research to the dissemination of DT nationally. From this, key lessons are drawn for faculty members wanting to set up and disseminate DT in their own university. The paper advocates that a DT professor becomes a staging director who should consider three elements – people, place, and process – in order to create “the right conditions for students to innovate” (Leifer, Stanford). A faculty member’s task thus defines itself as the art of creating the best conditions for driving students’ journeys of exploration within a specific context, and represents a transformative and learning adventure.
Deckers, E.J.L., Wensveen, S., Lévy, P., & Ahn, R. (2013). Designing for Perceptual Crossing: designing and comparing three behaviors. the Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI'13 (pp 1901–1910). Paris, France: ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2470654.2466251
publications 13 February 2013 2013-02-13T22:16:36+01:00 Perceptual crossing is the reciprocal interplay of perceiving while being perceived. In this paper we discuss the last iteration of our ongoing research project on designing for perceptive qualities in systems of interactive products. We describe the design of explorative behavior in an artifact to enable the artifact and a person to engage in perceptual crossing. The explorative behavior is compared to the following and active behavior, the results of two earlier iterations. Through the iterations we formulated, applied and evaluated design relevant knowledge in the form of seven design notions. These notions inform design-researchers and design-practitioners on how to design for perceptive qualities in systems of interactive products. Here we specifically focus on how the artifact detects active perceptive behavior of a person, and how the artifact becomes aware of bygone perception and anticipates on future perception. An experiment shows how participants preferred the resulting explorative behavior that is closest to our theoretical framework based on phenomenology.
Deckers, E.J.L., & Lévy, P. (2012). Designing for perceptive qualities: 7 showcases. the Proceedings of Design Interactive Systems Conference, DIS12 (pp 496–505). Newcastle, UK: ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2317956.2318030
publications 13 September 2012 2012-09-13T22:22:12+02:00 In this paper we describe seven showcases, namely ‘BeTouched’, ‘Dawe & Valle’, ‘Wonderturf’, ‘IN2WACO’, ‘Blow!’, ‘ShyLight’ and ‘PeR’, that give relevant insights on how to design for perceptive qualities in artifacts. Designing these perceptive qualities hypothetically enables a person to engage in a reciprocal perceptive interplay with the artifact: perceptual crossing between person and artifact can happen. This paper is part of an ongoing research in which we designed, built and evaluated several artifacts with perceptive qualities and in which we discovered a set of design notions. The theoretical model and the design notions involved in this research-project are introduced. The showcases illustrate and give value insights on the application of the theoretical model and the design notions.
Deckers, E.J.L., Lévy, P., Wensveen, S., Ahn, R., & Overbeeke, K. (2012). Designing for perceptual crossing: applying and evaluating design notions. International Journal of Design. 6(3), 41–55
publications 10 September 2012 2012-09-10T20:43:11+02:00 In this paper we describe our research on how to design for perceptual crossing between person and artefact. We present the design-research process, the design and evaluation of the designed artefact PeP+, short for perception pillar plus, and the generated design relevant knowledge. In our previous research we formulated a number of design notions, namely Focus the Senses, Active Behaviour Object, Subtleness, Reaction to External Event, Detecting Active Behaviour Subject, Reflecting Contextual Noise and Course of Perception in Time. These notions are relevant for designing perceptive activity in an artefact to allow for perceptual crossing between a person and this artefact. The person is able to get the feeling of sharing a common space with the artefact: to feel involved. To further investigate these design notions we reconsidered and implemented them in the design of PeP+. We discuss how the different design notions are applied in the artefact and show their relevance in an experiment. In this experiment we compare three behaviours, namely random, following and active, of PeP+ that are the result of the development of the design notions. The experiment gave insights into the development of the design notions and the experience of the person. This research uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework. Theory is used as inspiration and is the basis for synthesis.
Lévy, P. (2009). Introducing research activities: Knowledge Sharing and Creativity with Kansei Design. Journal of Japan Society of Kansei Engineering, 8(2)
publications 10 September 2012 2012-09-10T20:43:11+02:00
Lévy, P., Kim, D., Tsai, T.J., Lee, S.H., & Yamanaka, T. (2012). Involving psychophysiological knowledge in Kansei design. International Journal of Design Engineering. 5(2), 122-141. doi:10.1504/IJDE.2012.053018
publications 10 August 2012 2012-08-10T21:23:58+02:00 This paper introduces a design method using psychophysiological research output as an inspiration means for the design of products taking user?s Kansei highly into consideration. The development of this method is itself a part of a series of design methods based on the collaboration of the research fields of psychophysiology and design. As case studies, two design projects following this process are introduced. Firstly, the colourful rain umbrella lets its user to experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia. Secondly, the sensorial socialising smartphone informs about the user?s digital social network activity by the means of warmth, a non-invasive tactile technique. Informed by psychophysiological literature, this design is shown to be not only informational of the network activity, but also motivational towards greater social experience. This approach enables psychophysiology not only to inform and support design ideation, but also to enrich the value of the design concept by bringing new arguments.
Lévy, P. (2012). The multi-disciplinary nature of kansei research: an historical approach. Penghu, Taiwan.
publications 13 July 2012 2012-07-13T15:46:21+02:00 During the last three decades, kansei engineering has expanded greatly and has been highly recognized both in the industrial and the academic worlds. Nowadays, the term ‘kansei engineering’ is so strong in the kansei community that activities related to kansei, but not to engineering, keep on naming themselves kansei engineering research. This prevents the emancipation of other kansei disciplines, the enrichment of the field by the multiplication of point-of-views, and the dialogue between disciplines to understand better what kansei and kansei related disciplines are about. By presenting the historical path of kansei research and exploring the variety of disciplines within kansei research, I point out the multi-disciplinary nature of kansei research. Thereafter, I focus on three disciplines directly related to the making of physical artifacts: kansei engineering, kansei science, and kansei design. Whereas kansei engineering and kansei science have found their roots in scientifically established approaches (respectively engineering and brain science), kansei design intends to return to earlier Japanese philosophical or cultural works to rediscover the essence of kansei, and to use them as inspirational means for design. A case study of kansei research through design is also presented.
Lévy, P. (2012). Special issue: kansei research in Europe, presented at the Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2012, KEER2012, Penghu, Taiwan. May 22-25, 2012.
publications 25 May 2012 2012-05-25T21:30:22+02:00 Many academic laboratories and companies in Europe have worked in kansei research. As on other continents, kansei engineering is the most important discipline, but is not the only one. The disciplines in Kansei Research in Europe are multiple, as are their origins. This multiplicity of disciplines and points-of-views creates a great opportunity for the development of the field in Europe. As an expression of the interest for kansei engineering, Europe has recently welcomed two major conferences related to Kansei Engineering: ICBAKE2009 (including KEAS2009) in Cieszyn, Poland, and KEER2010 in Paris, France. For this last edition of the KEER conference, 32% of the presentations were presented by European researchers, and 40% of the attendants were affiliated in Europe. However, there is no European community on Kansei Research, neither officially nor practically. Laboratories and companies have not found yet the way and the means to create such community, which would certainly help the promotion and the development of Kansei Research in Europe. In this presentation I would like to show an overview of the European presentations at KEER2010, as a starting point to scan the current state of Kansei Research in Europe. I hope this presentation will elicit reactions towards the construction of such European community.
Lévy, P., Deckers, E.J.L., & Restrepo Cruz, M. (2012). When Movement Invites to Experience: a Kansei Design Exploration on Senses' Qualities. In the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2012, KEER12 ([on CD]). Penghu, Taiwan: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 14 April 2012 2012-04-14T22:03:51+02:00 In this paper, we introduce a Research through Design on Sensual Dynamics, and explore four design projects (namely Be Touched!, Sound Flowers, Shylight, and Blow!) from which we extract design notions providing valuable insights on how to design with and for the senses’ quality ‘reciprocity’. ‘Sensual Dynamics’ designs are artifacts that are able to sense one person and to behave upon her presnece to invite for movements enhancing the perceptive experience. Such an artifact is therefore at the same time the object of the experience as well as the trigger for a greater perceptive experience.
Trotto, A., Hummels, C.C.M., & Lévy, P. (2012). Developing a design approach, exploring resistance and ambiguity. In the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2012, KEER12 ([on CD]). Penghu, Taiwan: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 14 April 2012 2012-04-14T21:52:14+02:00 Designers face the world’s complexity at an experiential level. We consider Making (synthesising and concretising) an essential activity of designers, prior to Thinking (analysing and abstracting), because only through experience – a result of acting in the world – we achieve meaning, funnelling human intentionality. Making enables designers to explore the unknown by trusting their senses and their kansei, exploring resistance and ambiguity and by tapping into their intuition. Because ‘intuition begins with the sense that what is not yet could be’, it involves skills, as skills are our way to make sense of the world, transform it and to cater for ethics. In this paper we describe a one-day workshop that has been held during the CHItaly conference 2011 in Alghero, Italy. During that day, we explored how the integration of points of view, using intuition through skills can communicate and create a richer meaning. The assignment was to design an empowering and enabling tool that allows a person to begin to experience another person’s skill. To be able to design such a tool, designers had to go through several steps of documenting and reflecting upon their own and each other’s skills. We reflect on the experience and explain how this approach can support the integration of points of view, which is considered to be formed by personal experience, by skills, and by kansei.
Lévy, P. (2012). Making the world through kansei: 3 Approaches, presented at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. March 16th, 2012.
publications 16 March 2012 2012-03-16T21:48:30+01:00
Lévy, P., Yamanaka, T., & Tomico, O. (2011). Psychophysiological Applications in Kansei Design. In & M., Shi (Eds.) Kansei Engineering and Soft Computing: Theory and Practice (pp. 266-286). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61692-797-4.ch015
publications 23 September 2011 2011-09-23T15:21:00+02:00 In order to describe emerging methods and means for Kansei design, this paper overviews three approaches involving an intense collaboration between the fields of design and psychophysiology:<br/> - The use of tools built for psychophysiology and of techniques based on constructivist psychology theory, in order to support designers ‘inspirational work focusing on human beings’ behaviors, experience, and mental constructs.<br/> - The use of knowledge created by psychophysiological research as an inspirational source of knowledge and as a conveyor of it for all along the design process. This approach takes into account the latest scientific progresses in psychophysiology, and concerns greatly about the scientific nature of the considered knowledge.<br/> - The use of psychophysiology tools to complete design requirements. Each approach presented here is supported by an applicative example. These interdisciplinary approaches lead towards the structuring of Kansei Design as an application field of Kansei Science.
Lévy, P., Kuenen, S., Overbeeke, K., Uchiyama, T., & Yamanaka, T. (2011). Ohlala: Exploring the Relation between Content Completeness and Emotional Experience. In N., Roozenburg, L.L., Chen, & P.J., Stappers (Eds.), the Proceedings of International Association of Societies of Design Research 2011, IASDR11 ([on CD]). Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.
publications 14 September 2011 2011-09-14T21:58:10+02:00 Among other explorations, the field of telepresence technology has looked at ways to create a feeling of telepresence based on the transfer of minimal information. On this topic, the Cololo project has taken an extreme position by proposing the experience of 1-bit communication. Based on the observation of Cololo in use, it is shown that content is not necessary to trigger an emotional experience. This paper introduces a novel dimension to be taken into consideration in communication technology: the content-completeness dimension, ranging from non-content to hyper-content. Furthermore, we built the Ohlala framework, aiming to explore the content-completeness dimension. Based on Ohlala, by way of a research through design, we intend to explore further the relations between this dimension on communication and emotional experience.
Lévy, P., Wijnen, J., Hummels, C.C.M., & Vinke, A.A. (2011). Luciole, lighting up the design process. In P., Marti, A., Soro, L., Gamberini, & S., Bagnara (Eds.), the Proceedings of 9th ACM SIGCHI Italian Chapter International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction Facing Complexity - CHItaly (pp 103). Alghero, Italy: ACM. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037296.2037323
publications 14 June 2011 2011-06-14T21:43:41+02:00 The Industrial Design Department of Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) is continuously developing and putting in practice a holistic and integrative educational approach, focusing on designing intelligent systems, products, and related services for societal transformation. This approach requires students to continuously reflect upon their design process and their results. Therefore, we are exploring how to support them in documenting and reflecting on their design projects.<br/> This paper introduces the first design iterations of Luciole, a design process visualisation tool based on and integrated in the educational model of TU/e.ID. These first iterations show clearly the students? benefit of using Luciole. This tool supports students in their design processes and in their reflection upon them. It is viewed as a tool to assist reflection upon designing, communication with coaches, and assessment.<br/> Finally, a first functional prototype of Luciole is introduced, as a means for further research. A long term user-test is currently conducted in order to validate the actual relevancy of Luciole as a tool to support education at TU/e.ID, and to evaluate the students? appreciation and use of the tool.
Lévy, P. (2011). Kansei et kansei design, presented at l'École Nationale Supérieure de la Création Industrielle, Paris, France. March 31st, 2011.
publications 31 March 2011 2011-03-31T21:21:51+02:00 Auparavant, il a été maître de conférence en “Service Product Design” a Chiba University et à la Kansei Information Design de University of Tsukuba, au Japon. Docteur en Science de cette même université, il a un master d’ingénieur mécanique de l’Université de Technologie de Compiègne. En tant que chercheur, il s’est intéressé à tous les aspects de partage (des connaissances, espace, temps, compétences, motivation …), conduisant à la socialisation et à la créativité. Il pense que la recherche kansei et le design sont deux approches d’ouverture d’esprit qui peuvent apporter des idées originales aux mondes universitaires, industriels et sociaux. Une approche phénoménologique peut aider à mieux comprendre et à améliorer leurs relations, souvent complexes, avec les différents aspects du monde en réseau.
Lévy, P., Hummels, C.C.M., & Vinke, A.A. (2011). Bringing Forth Constructivist Education Assessment: A Frame of Reference to Inspire and to Support Design Education. the Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Design Principles and Practices ([on CD]). Rome, Italy: CGPublisher.
publications 14 March 2011 2011-03-14T21:32:12+01:00 The Industrial Design Department of Eindhoven University of Technology is continuously developing and putting in practice a holistic and integrative educational approach, focusing on designing intelligent systems, products and related services for societal transformation.<br/> During the semester, each student is supported by a personal coach, by assignors and experts, who eventually provide feedbacks on the student’s learning, achievement, and reflection upon learning. During the end-of-term assessment, students are evaluated on their overall development (taking skills, knowledge, reflection, attitude and identity into account). After describing the rational of the educational system of TU/e and its process in practice, this paper focuses on the introduction of a new educational tool aiming at supporting education, assessment included: the Frame of Reference.<br/> The holistic quality of the educational system allows the personalisation of the entire student career. Therefore, there are as many visions and student paths as the number of students. Each student is different from others in terms of their knowledge, skills and experience. Consequently, no standardized criteria can be properly applied to the evaluation procedure.<br/> The Frame of Reference is structured as an intelligent space, both physical and virtual, and adaptive to the visitors’ expectations and experience. It offers referential works and development of design students (prototypes, reports, showcases…), illustrating stages of and processes for competency development and over-all development as a designer. The Frame of Reference is introduced and described as a place for sharing points of views and experiences, between students, coaches, experts, assessors, and external visitors. It is designed to inspire and to support students as well as staff, by creating a comprehensive and clearer, yet non-homogenous vision of what students throughout the department achieve, of how this is evaluated and how this contributes to students’ overall competence of designing.
Lévy, P. (2011). The origin of experience, presented at the the seminar series Catch the Future, the Department of Industrial Design of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea. March 8th, 2011
publications 08 March 2011 2011-03-08T21:11:59+01:00
Lévy, P. (2010). Kansei research in Eurasia, presented at the the TIK Symposium 2010, Taihung, Taiwan. October 23rd, 2010.
publications 23 October 2010 2010-10-23T21:16:30+02:00 The International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research 2010 (KEER2010), held at the Arts et Mètiers ParisTech in Paris, has been a promising event for the future of Kansei Research in Europe. For the first time, numerous European researchers in Kansei Engineering and related topics met not only each other, but also their colleagues from all over the world. For the first time, a European community on Kansei research gathered and exchanged knowledge and views on Kansei with the Asian communities.<br/>I would like to take the chance of this presentation to frame again the current situation of the European research on Kansei, and to position it from an Eurasian perspective. To do so, I will take two steps:<br/>- A review on the history of Kansei research will show the early implications of European philosophy in the ‘academic establishment’ of the term Kansei and of the philosophy of Kansei. This aspect is crucial as it shows already existing bridges between Asian and European thoughts, and stresses points for reciprocal interests and future collaborations.<br/>- A picture of the current Kansei research in Europe will show main driving European activities on Kansei research. To do so, I will present a review of KEER2010, picturing the presence of European researchers in the field of Kansei and related topics. Although this picture, based only on the outcome of KEER2010, may not be complete, it will render the great possibilities of further Kansei research development in Europe.<br/>With this presentation, I hope to be able to clarify better the current situation of Kansei research in Europe, towards greater involvement of Europe in this field, towards better exchange between Europe and Asia for a more international Kansei research community.
Yamanaka, T., & Lévy, P. (2010). 感性価値の高い化粧品開発にむけた手法と考え方 感性認知脳科学的視点から考える感性価値創造 [Kansei Science and Kansei Value Creation through Kansei, Behavioral and Brain Sciences]. Cosmetic Stage. 4(33), 1-11
publications 10 September 2010 2010-09-10T21:18:00+02:00
Lévy, P., Bouchard, C., Yamanaka, T., & Aoussat A. (Eds.). 2010. The Proceedings of the Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2010 – KEER 2010. Paris, France. ISBN: 978-4-9905104-0-4.
publications 04 March 2010 2010-03-04T22:10:51+02:00 On behalf of Arts et Métiers ParisTech, it is my great pleasure to welcome you to Paris for the International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research: KEER 2010.<br/>This event has been co-organized by the Japanese Society of Kansei Engineering, the Taiwan Institute of Kansei, and Arts et Métiers ParisTech. KEER 2010 is organized for the first time in Europe, more specifically in Paris. We are all the more proud to host this conference within our School, which is one of the oldest Schools of Engineering in France, with a culture that focuses strongly on innovation in technology and processes.<br/>The overall theme of the conference is ‘Crossing places, crossing experiences, crossing minds’. We sincerely hope that the conference will set a strong ground for future scientific and cultural exchanges. With time, we hope that the contacts you will make here will help construct long-lasting bridges between our cultures, and bring us closer together in mutually beneficial work relationships. We have been fortunate this year to receive many contributions from 25 countries worldwide, which added up to 410 submitted papers and posters, over 230 of which were selected in the final program. In the next three days, we have organized 7 simultaneous sessions to host presentations from the authors, as well as two keynote presentations every day. We hope each and every one of you will find nourishment for your scientific curiosity and for future lively and fascinating debates.<br/>I am greatly thankful to all authors for their excellent contributions, to the program committee members, and to the referees for their contribution and valuable insight during the reviewing process. I would also like to thank all the people who have helped with organizing the conference: Prof. Hisao SHIIZUKA (Kogakuin University, President of JSKE), Prof. Kuohsiang CHEN (National Cheng-Kung University), Prof. Toshimasa YAMANAKA (University of Tsukuba), Prof. Yu-Ming CHANG (Southern Taiwan Universty of Technology), Assistant Prof. Pierre LEVY (Eindhoven University of Technology) and Assistant Prof. Carole BOUCHARD (Arts et Métiers ParisTech). Particular thanks go to the members of the KEER 2010 organizing committee here in Arts et Métiers ParisTech.<br/>Welcome to Paris. We wish you all a very fruitful and convivial conference.<br/><br/><i>Améziane AOUSSAT</i><br/><i>Conference Chair</i>
Tsai, T.J., Lévy, P., Ono, K., & Watanabe, M. (2010). Developing sensory functions: transfer human senses from contextual perception. In P., Lévy, C., Bouchard, T., Yamanaka, & A., Aoussat (Eds.), the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2010 - KEER2010 (pp 304–313). Paris, France: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 04 March 2010 2010-03-04T22:03:51+02:00 Approaches in interaction design were explored a hyperspace that human cognitive actions and interactive system in both two end. Recently, this dualism in diverse direction is integrated in a notion of context, which had brought from social science as the manifest of implicit interactions that makes ‘sense’ from human actions or activities. In this research, we applied perception in ecological view to capture the stimuli of context in its dynamic nature, and proposed a notion of sensory function in extracting the transfer character of sensorimotor as transmitting signals to perception. Firstly, a theoretical approach in integrated context and perception was reviewed as the nature of stimuli and sensorimotor that can offer a grounded knowledge to carry images of context to perceptual actions. Secondly, we practiced a process in conductive way to analysis and synthesis the transfer function as a notion of sensory function. Thirdly, an application of prototype was built for order action that situated in a coffee shop, and implemented with a concept of ‘waiter cup’. To conclude, this study may be important to support incentive observation at the early design stage, and provides a tool to exploring contextual perception in designing interaction.
Lévy, P., Yamanaka, T., Ono, K., & Watanabe, M. (2009). Prospective psychophysiological approach for Kansei design: knowledge sharing between psychophysiology and design. the Proceedings of International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2009 - IASDR09 ([on CD]). Seoul, Korea: Korean Society of Design Science.
publications 22 September 2009 2009-09-22T21:28:01+02:00 This paper introduces an interdisciplinary design method, based on psychophysiological knowledge used as inspirational means for Kansei design. After describing the interest for such method, this paper describes each step of the method, from pre-ideation steps to actual design process based on the knowledge of human behavior phenomena and of their mechanisms. This description is supported by two examples. The teaching of this method to design master students pointed out not only the great possibilities of this method as an interdisciplinary approach in Kansei design, but also the difficulties of using scientific literature and knowledge in design.
Tomico, O., Karapanos, E., Lévy, P., Mizutani, N., & Yamanaka, T. (2009). The Repertory Grid Technique as a Method for the Study of Cultural Differences. International Journal of Design. 3(3), 55-63.
publications 10 September 2009 2009-09-10T21:14:52+02:00 Culture is typically approached in the field of design through generic, cross-domain constructs. In this paper we provide an alternative methodological approach to exploring cross-cultural differences by studying the idiosyncratic views of individuals with regard to existing products. We operationalize this approach through the Repertory Grid Technique, a structured interview technique motivated by Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory, and propose a content-analytic procedure combining quantitative and qualitative information. We further propose the use of three distinct metrics in the analysis of personal constructs: dominance, importance, and descriptive richness. Dominance of a construct is measured through the relative percentage of a construct category over the total sample of constructs. Importance is measured through the elicitation order; this assumes that constructs elicited first are more salient and important to the individual. Descriptive richness relates to the diversity of a class of constructs. Some constructs might be uni-dimensional while others might tap to a number of distinct facets. The use of these indices enables the quantification of the different ways in which individuals perceive and differentiate between products. By identifying how individuals respond to a rich set of stimuli within a given domain, we inquire into their values and the qualities they appreciate within this restricted domain. Cultural values are thus explored in relation to a set of stimuli. We tested this procedure through an exploration of the ways 17 Dutch and 16 Japanese industrial designers valued a set of pens.
Lévy, P., Kim, D., Tsai, T.J., Lee, S.H., & Yamanaka, T. (2009). Colourful Rain – Experiencing Synaesthesia. the Proceedings of International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces - DPPI09. Compiègne, France.
publications 22 August 2009 2009-08-22T21:06:57+02:00 This paper introduces a Kansei design method using psychophysiological research output as an inspiration means for the design of products taking highly into consideration user’s Kansei. The development of this method is itself a part of a series of design method creation based on the collaboration of the research fields of psychophysiology and design. The Kansei design method is based on four major steps involving both a classic design process and a literature investigation in psychophysiology. The main difficulty for the Kansei designer is to take into consideration the scientific rigor of the literature and to succeed to describe properly the behavioural phenomenon(a) she/he wishes to involve in the design process. As an example of design output, the colourful-rain umbrella is introduced. This umbrella lets its user to experience a rare synaesthetic perceptive phenomenon: all sounds in the rainy street are also perceived as colours (visually). To do so, the synaesthetic phenomenon is detailed from a psychophysiological point of view.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2009). Kansei Studies Description and Mapping through Kansei Study Keywords. Kansei Engineering International. 8(2), 179–185.
publications 10 August 2009 2009-08-10T21:01:53+02:00 The aim of this paper is to present the project undertaken by the authors to describe Kansei and to structure Kansei design studies. Indeed, the current fuzziness on Kansei research structure complicates the global comprehension of this field and seems to be a hindrance to Kansei design education and internationalisation. To improve both of these aspects, this paper proposes a comprehensive description of Kansei and Kansei Studies, explains its specificity compared to “classic” research fields, and introduces a list of 131 Kansei Study Keywords which will be used in further projects to structure Kansei sources of knowledge and improve Kansei knowledge development, Kansei research, and Kansei education.
Tsai, T.J., Lévy, P., Ono, K., & Watanabe, M. (2010). Developing sensory functions: transfer human senses from contextual perception. In P., Lévy, C., Bouchard, T., Yamanaka, & A., Aoussat (Eds.), the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research International Conference 2010 - KEER2010 (pp 304–313). Paris, France: Japan Society of Kansei Engineering.
publications 23 June 2009 2009-06-23T21:19:56+02:00 Through the example of three projects, this paper describes emerging methods and means used in the field of Kansei design studies:<br/>- The use of tools built for psychophysiology and for constructive psychology in order to support designers’ work focusing on human beings’ behaviours and mental schemes;<br/>- The use of knowledge created by psychophysiological research as an inspirational source for industrial design, taking into consideration the latest scientific progress in psychophysiology;<br/>- The use of psychophysiology tools to complete design requirements. Each point presented here is supported by an applicative example.
Kowatari, Y., Lee, S.H., Yamamura, H., Nagamori, Y., Lévy, P., Yamane, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2009). Neural networks involved in artistic creativity. Human Brain Mapping. 30(5), 1678–1690. doi:10.1002/hbm.20633
publications 10 March 2009 2009-03-10T20:48:39+01:00 Creativity has been proposed to be either the result of solely right hemisphere processes or of interhemispheric interactions. Little information is available, however, concerning the neuronal foundations of creativity. In this study, we introduced a new artistic task, designing a new tool (a pen), which let us quantitatively evaluate creativity by three indices of originality. These scores were analyzed in combination with brain activities measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results were compared between subjects who had been formally trained in design (experts) and novice subjects. In the experts, creativity was quantitatively correlated with the degree of dominance of the right prefrontal cortex over that of the left, but not with that of the right or left prefrontal cortex alone. In contrast, in novice subjects, only a negative correlation with creativity was observed in the bilateral inferior parietal cortex. We introduced structure equation modeling to analyze the interactions among these four brain areas and originality indices. The results predicted that training exerts a direct effect on the left parietal cortex. Additionally, as a result of the indirect effects, the activity of the right prefrontal cortex was facilitated, and the left prefrontal and right parietal cortices were suppressed. Our results supported the hypothesis that training increases creativity via reorganized intercortical interactions.
Lévy, P. (2008). Lier Affectivité et Conception: l’Ingénierie Kansei. Techniques de l'Ingénieur, AG2140v1
publications 13 November 2008 2008-11-13T15:56:16+01:00
Lévy, P., & Wakabayashi, N. (2008). User's appreciation of engagement in service design: The case of food service design. the Proceedings of International Service Innovation Design Conference 2008 - ISIDC08. Busan, Korea.
publications 22 October 2008 2008-10-22T21:02:00+01:00 This research focuses on the engagement in service design. It aims at understanding how users appreciate or not their own engagement in the service process. As a case study for the experiment, various ways of ‘making tea’ were used, and were presented to the subject. Based on the repertory grid method and the means-end chain technique, subjects’ preferences and mental model evaluation structure were captured and analyzed. As a result, two major aspects were extracted: the preference for easiness of preparation, and preference for control over the preparation process. Finally, it was noticed and discussed that engagement in service design was perceived as positive for social services, but bothering for personal one. Also, user’s control and service feedback to the users’ senses were discussed and proposed as service design recommendations.
Tsai, T.J., Lévy, P., Ono, K., & Watanabe, M. (2008). An Approach on Functional Analysis in Developing Guideline for Designing Service-embedded Product. the Proceedings of International Service Innovation Design Conference 2008 - ISIDC08 ([on CD]). Busan, Korea.
publications 22 October 2008 2008-10-22T20:55:44+02:00 In recently, we designers aimed at discovering new domain of service and product to find the opportunities in order to create users need or demands in their daily life. However, the guidelines are still neglect for us to process design thinking for solution output. In the first part of this paper, the notion of service-embedded product (SeP) will be defined in environment of service-product-integration. And we described approaches for designing interaction of SeP for improving qualities as the background. For this matter, we found the function in designing is not only inferred to the product itself and more in service and needed systematic approach. Thereafter, we proposed a Functional Analysis tool, which adapted from the APTE® in solve complex problems by analyzing values through the functions. For this purpose, a list of keywords related to service-product-integration and designing interaction, was extracted from 432 articles from CiNii during the period between January and May 2008. The result presents and constructs several terms for guideline in describing designing interaction functions, such as Information Tangibility, Gateway Accessibility Network Protocol and Product Affordability, to be used as core concepts to design interactions for SeP. By these results, we intend to develop a design tool for SeP in Service and Product Design (SPD) filed in the future.
Ono, K., Lévy, P., Ishizuka, A., Hachima, S., & Waatanabe, M. (2008). Development of Competences for Service Design. the Proceedings of International Service Innovation Design Conference 2008 - ISIDC08. Busan, Korea.
publications 22 October 2008 2008-10-22T20:45:41+02:00 Objective of this research is to clarify crucial competences for designers who design service and competences that education institutes should develop for future service designers. To refer about Service Design, firstly, it is necessary to clarify each of two concepts, design and service, that both are elusive.<br/>In this research, design is treated as a process to create a meaningful new option through doing simulation of creation, imagination (of people who will enjoy the benefit) and evaluation.<br/>Regarding service, this research shows that a concept of service includes several different concepts and those are able to be categorized into two major concepts.<br/>One is the concept of service in a narrow sense, which there are nothing left after goods are bought and sold and nonphysical economic goods to provide satisfaction and utility (e.g. cleaning shop, hair salon, etc). Another is the concept of service in a broad sense which is economic nonphysical combination of goods of products, information and narrow services for getting satisfaction and utility (e.g. restaurant, car dealer, hotel, etc). Consequently this research proposes that broad service is that we should cover and the competence we should develop is to do cycle in a level of combination of products, information and narrow services.<br/>However about the way to develop the competence, if the simulation of creation, imagination and evaluation is the exclusive means in order to create a meaningful new option, it might be impossible to start to do the simulation in a level of narrow services without any knowledge and experience and also difficult to find the excuse that designer should be competent for the simulation in a level of narrow services.<br/>Therefore, by expanding the ability of imagination which enhanced by repeating the simulation in a level of products and information as conventional design process to the level of service, the competence for creating meaningful new services in a narrow, also broad service should be developed.
Lévy, P. (2008). Kansei Engineering|Science – Trans|Interdisciplinary Research, presented at the KEER International Symposium 2008, Taipei, Taiwan. October 2nd, 2008.
publications 02 October 2008 2008-10-02T21:03:50+02:00
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2008). Designing based on the evoked metaphor - Case study. In D., Marjanovic, M., Storga, N., Pavkovic, & N., Bojcetic (Eds.), the Proceedings of 10th International Design Conference 2008 (pp 1095 – 1104). Dubrovnik, Croatia.
publications 24 September 2008 2008-09-24T20:18:29+02:00 The research presented in this paper is part of the last target of Kansei research for design. Its aim is to build up a design method for interdisciplinary workgroup context. The bases of this method have been published in the past [Lévy 2006]. In this paper, this method and a more practical way to apply it will be introduced, before presenting a case study output from a course taught from April to November 2007 to Master students.
Tomico, O., Mizutani, N., Lévy, P., Takahiro, Y., & Yamanaka, T. (2008). Kansei physiological measurements and contructivist psychological explorations for approaching user subjective experience during and after product usage. In D., Marjanovic, M., Storga, N., Pavkovic, & N., Bojcetic (Eds.), the Proceedings of 10th International Design Conference 2008 (pp 529 – 536). Dubrovnik, Croatia.
publications 23 September 2008 2008-09-23T20:22:26+02:00 The aim of this article is to explore the suitability of psycho-physiological measures (e.g. levels of pleasure, excitement and comfortableness during the usage obtained from physiological measures) and psychological explorations (e.g. users’ reflections about their needs for interaction obtained from an interview) for approaching user subjective experience during and after the interaction with a product takes place (explorative usage and reflection processes).<br/>For this purpose the 2-point Electroencephalogram (EEG) comfort measurement is used to gather realtime information about how a person feels during the interaction with a product and the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) interview is used to gather information about what people’s primary goals and concerns are and about the meaning placed on the purpose outside the immediate experience (after interacting with a product).
Lévy, P., Nakamori, S., & Yamanaka, T. (2008). Explaining kansei design studies. In P.M.A., Desmet, S., Tsvetanova, P., Hekkert, & L., Justice (Eds.), the Proceedings of Design and Emotion Conference 2008 - D&E08. Hong-Kong: School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
publications 25 March 2008 2008-03-25T20:31:02+01:00 Within the last thirty years, Kansei studies have become an important field of research in Japan. More recently, foreign researchers have become more and more interested in understating the approach, despite the difficulties related to the cultural dimension of Kansei and Kansei studies. The aim of this research is to propose to westerners a clear description of what Kansei and Kansei studies are, and how it is different from classic western approaches on sensory or emotion design. Using this description of Kansei studies, a brainstorming has been organized to determine a list of keywords (KSK) used to structure and map comprehensively Kansei-related source of information. Moreover, a participative tool, called KanseiTako, is introduced. This tool aims at providing researchers, educators, and students, with an organized and useful set of knowledge sources to structure comprehensively the research field and the education in Kansei studies.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2008). Kansei Studies Description and Mapping through Kansei Studies Keywords. the Proceedings of International Symposium on Emotion and Sensitivity 2008 - ISES08. Daejeon, Korea.
publications 28 February 2008 2008-02-28T19:51:56+01:00 The aim of this paper is to present the project undertaken by the authors to describe Kansei and to structure Kansei design studies. Indeed, the current fuzziness on Kansei research structure complicates the global comprehension of this field and seems to be a hindrance to Kansei design education and internationalization. To improve both of these aspects, this paper proposes a comprehensive description of Kansei and Kansei Studies, explains its specificity compared to ‘classic’ research fields, and introduces a list of 131 Kansei Studies Keywords which will be used in further projects to structure Kansei sources of knowledge and improve Kansei knowledge development, Kansei research, and Kansei education.
Yamanaka, T., Tomico, O., Mizutani, N., Yokoi, T., Cho, Y., & Lévy, P. (2008). Kansei-Physiological Measurements and Constructivist – Psychological Explorations for Approaching User's Subjective Experience during and after the Product Use. the Proceedings of International Symposium on Emotion and Sensitivity 2008 - ISES08 ([on CD]). Daejeon, Korea.
publications 25 February 2008 2008-02-25T19:44:09+01:00 This research explores the combinationof psycho-physiological measures and psychological explorations to illustrate user’s tacit factor while experiencing the use of products. As an experiment, we used a set of ballpoint pens for experience. The Repertory Grid Technology and EEG measurement, based on alpha wave fluctuation of left and right frontal brain, are used. The result carried an idea about the potential of using the RGT quantitative results as a bridge for linking qualitative data from the interviews with quantitative data from the comfort measures. Precisely, the quantitative data form the RGT allows for classifying and comparing qualitative information from different participants. At the same time correlate its values with other measurements like the comfort level. This opens the possibility to track the evolution of the comfortableness level in relation to the movements, actions and tasks done while interacting with the product. It also shows the possibility of rating and clustering the subjective information obtained from the RG (weakness analysis) in order to define which characteristics are related and which of the senses that take part of it.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2007). Interdisciplinary Design Method for EcoDesign – Introducing Kansei research for design to EcoDesign. the Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing - EcoDesign2007 ([on CD]). Tokyo, Japan.
publications 02 October 2007 2007-10-02T19:37:01+02:00 This paper presents an interdisciplinary design method and shows its relevance for EcoDesign. Interdisciplinary design intends to design a product considering its entire context, by the participation of various disciplines. A metaphorical level is required and built in the design process in order to involve properly all disciplines. This continuous participation of every involved discipline makes this design method fully interdisciplinary and relevant for EcoDesign. After introducing the objectives of EcoDesign and interdisciplinary design, the method of interdisciplinary design method will be detailed. This description will be useful to understand how interdisciplinary design works, and how it can be useful for EcoDesign. Finally, it will be suggested that Kansei research for design, which is at the origin of this research, can be a source of new development to improve the quality of human factors in EcoDesign.
Lévy, P. (2008). Kansei and Kansei Studies: an Overview towards Kansei Design, presented at the the International Symposium of the 21th Century COE Program for the Promotion of Kansei Science for Understanding the Mechanism of Mind and Heart, Tsukuba, Japan. September 9th, 2007.
publications 09 September 2007 2007-09-09T20:52:21+02:00
Lévy, P., Lee, S.H., & Yamanaka, T. (2007). On Kansei and Kansei Design: a Description of a Japanese Design Approach. the Proceedings of International Association of Societies of Design Research Conference 2007 - IASDR07 ([on CD]). Hong-Kong: School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
publications 10 July 2007 2007-07-10T19:32:06+02:00 Kansei design methods are successful in the Japanese industry and academic worlds. Outside Japan, their level of development and recognition is nothing compared with the situation inside of Japan. One of the reasons is that there is currently no comprehensive description of Kansei and Kansei studies written for the international community. This paper intends to provide such description, to analyze involved cultural differences, and to describe how Kansei is involved in the Japanese design approaches. To do so, an overview of main descriptions of Kansei is realized and synthesized into a comprehensive and useful description. Thereafter, Kansei study objectives and methods are analyzed and their differences with that of western approach. Finally, the implication of Kansei in Japanese design is explained. This research intends to improve western understanding of Kansei, and to improve mutual understanding in both industrial and academic worlds between East and West.
Lévy, P., Yamanaka, T., Wang, L., & Igarashi, H. (2007). Creating an Evoked Metaphor for Kansei Design. the Proceedings of International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research - KEER07 ([on CD]). Sapporo, Japan.
publications 29 June 2007 2007-06-29T17:35:41+02:00 The Kansei design method allows interdisciplinary workgroups to process design projects using an original knowledge sharing system. This system is based on the SECI Model, already recognized as one of the most efficient models for creative projects. To minimize knowledge distortions due to the interdisciplinary quality of the workgroup, a tool called Evoked Metaphor is inserted to the SECI process. Thanks to the Evoked Metaphor, all shared knowledge can be understood intuitively by any member of the design workgroup, and can be validated on disciplinary points of view. This allows any member of the workgroup, regardless her/his own specialty, to participate to any step of the design process and to communicate with other members. This paper recalls the way the Evoked Metaphor can be used in the Kansei design process, and focuses on its construction method. To illustrate the construction process, an example is proposed concerning a car navigation project.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2006). Towards a definition of Kansei. the Proceedings of 2006 Design Research Society International Conference, Wonderground 2006 ([on CD]). Lisbon, Portugal.
publications 29 September 2006 2006-09-29T19:13:29+02:00 This paper introduces a new research aiming at defining the term Kansei using western philosophical concepts. In the literature, all definitions of the term Kansei are imprecise, even incorrect in most of the case. This is mainly due to the fact that Kansei is a Japanese term, which does not have direct translation in any western language. However, a deeper research has to be pursued to bring the research in Kansei, in Kansei Information, in Kansei Science, and so forth to an international level. This objective requires many research fields to meet in an interdisciplinary research environment following the example of previous works done in other fields, but also trying to link Japanese and Westerns concepts. This paper is an invitation for interested people to contact the research team.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2006). Interdisciplinary workgroup methodology based on Intuition – Application to a communication tool design based on Kansei information approach. Kansei Engineering International. 5(4), 31–40.
publications 10 September 2006 2006-09-10T20:58:39+02:00 The artifact is a complex element. Besides its elementary dimensions (material, functional and formal), the artifact is composed of much more dimensions: ergonomic, emotional, cultural, and even ethologic or theological. To take into account this great quantity and diversity of dimensions, the designer’s work has to be widened out. Necessarily, this goes through an interdisciplinary approach, i.e. through an interdisciplinary workgroup activity. Nevertheless, this brings issues, notably concerning knowledge communication and sharing. For each variety of knowledge (tacit, prescriptive and descriptive), interdisciplinary activity provokes issues either because of disciplinary ontology differences, or because of human subjective understanding differences. Intuition is a mental process which is able to minimize these issue effects. We then propose a methodology based on intuition, structured on the theory of Ba, on the SECI Model, which an evoked metaphor (EM) is added to. Through the EM, each member of the workgroup is able to participate to every steps of the design process and to communicate with other members, thanks to an intuitive understanding permanently validated by involved disciplines. This creates an efficient interdisciplinary dynamics and the realization of fully interdisciplinary projects. To illustrate this methodology, the design of MATiK is introduced as an example. MATiK is an original workgroup communication system based on a Kansei information approach. In order to understand the expected functionalities of MATiK and to design it, the EM is set up. Considering basic aspects of an extensive workgroup operative process, the Loft is defined as an EM. The Loft offers an opportunity to understand MATiK’s original functionalities, MATiK’s design, and MATiK’s functional and technical requirements intuitively. This methodology, based on the EM, asserts its relevancy for interdisciplinary design. Its strength comes from the fact that the EM links all the levels of the design process (the idea/concept level, the reality level, and the technical level) and makes their understanding accessible to all members thanks to intuition.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2006). MATiK – CMC design by Kansei Information approach. the Proceedings of Kansei Engineering and Intelligent Systems - KEIS'06 ([on CD]). Aizu, Japan
publications 29 June 2006 2006-06-29T17:27:20+02:00 In this paper, we introduce the work-in-progress of the design a CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication) system called MATiK. The originality of this design is not only the result, i.e. MATiK, but also the Kansei Information based design methodology used to design it. The later uses intuition as a knowledge-sharing process among the design workgroup members. An original conceptualizing tool (the Evoked Metaphor) is introduced in the paradigm of the sharing knowledge process (the SECI Model) to allow members of the interdisciplinary design workgroup to work together upon individual and disciplinary differences. MATiK includes an original function simulating the “cocktail party phenomenon” in the information flow management system of the CMC. This new function improves drastically the quality of social aspects of communications over computers by taking into considerations subjective and social aspects of all the users. Therefore, this paper proposes to discuss the implications of Kansei on sharing knowledge to overpass the current limits of the information technologies, before introducing MATiK and its design process.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2006). Kansei information approach for an interdisciplinary design method proposal based on intuition. In D., Marjanovic (Eds.), the Proceedings of 9th International Design Conference 2006 (pp 1475 – 1482). Dubrovnik, Croatia.
publications 29 April 2006 2006-04-29T17:14:53+02:00 Considering the complexity of the artefact (artefact means here human construction, to be opposed with the Nature construction. It gathers objects, processes, services and their systems), great design improvements can succeed thanks to an interdisciplinary approach. However, interdisciplinary knowledge sharing encounters many issues, due to disciplinary ontology and human subjective understanding. For designers to adopt an interdisciplinary behaviour, a method is required. This paper introduces a methodological solution, based on intuition.
Lévy, P. (2006). Interdisciplinary design for the cyberspace by an approach in kansei information – Methodology and Workgroup Communication Tool Design Approach in Kansei. University of Tsukuba, Japan
publications 24 March 2006 2006-03-24T15:27:47+01:00 The evolution of humanity, and notably of societies which are composing it, is marked all along its history, by evolutions, verily revolutions, of communication technologies (invention of spoken language, written language, of printing techniques, and so on. . . ). The digital technology and the advent of the Internet are significant steps of this evolution. Nowadays, the impressive development and the intrusion of information technology at every level of the society, at the institutional levels as well as the private ones, bring the need for a new social and societal paradigm based on the knowledge and intelligence economy. This new paradigm includes the concept of Cyberspace to denote the virtual space for human and social exchanges based on human knowledge and experience. Each human being is a center of this paradigm. The individual, owner and retailer of intelligence, is emphasized by her/his own experience. Considering Chisei and Kansei, both cognitive elements of each individual, and descriptive and tacit knowledge, owned by each individual, there is a necessity to consider subjective (or personal) dimension in social communication while designing tools for the Cyberspace. The actual evolution, brought by the new information technologies, makes possible for each individual to share and announce one’s own knowledge with the rest of the group (by extension, with the whole humanity), whatever its size or nature. This is certainly a revolution. This is at the beginning of a new context allowing the design of relevant tools enable to help humanity to understand its common action. This understanding reaches to Collective Intelligence, a new opportunity for human community to progress. Thus there is a real need for new design objectives: creation of tools for Collective Intelligence. Kansei, translated in English as a mental sense of subjectivity, is influencing human relationships. It has an influence on both the ideation and the understanding of interpersonal communication. Thus, Kansei becomes a key point in social context behavior of each individual, influencing not only the social context it-self (its structure and its operation), but also the information flow. Therefore, Kansei Information can contribute to integrate human subjectivity aspects in the design of tools for the Collective Intelligence. Considering these points, the aim of this study is to understand how Kansei Information can contribute to the creation to the creation of a design methodology for Collective Intelligence, and thus to the improvement of communication structures of interdisciplinary workgroups.
Lévy, P., & Yamanaka, T. (2004). Introducing MATiK service – Proposition for a new IT communication system through an approach in Kansei. the Proceedings of 2004 Design Research Society International Conference - Futureground 2004 ([on CD]). Melbourne, Australia: Monash University.
publications 29 September 2004 2004-09-29T17:21:09+02:00 Even though IT is a very convenient tool for virtual communities to correspond, limitations are many and, for most of them, already known. This paper focuses on the issues related with tacit knowledge and subjective communication. The aim is to introduce an original software taking user’s subjectivity into account to optimize information flow.<br/>This research has been launch as a part of the 21st Century COE Program, sponsored by the MEXT, aiming at structuring Kansei as a science. Three laboratories with different specialties are working on this common program. As various knowledge is sharing between various people, a quick multiplication of mailing-lists occurred, creating a chaotic situation, preventing efficient communication. The wish to share knowledge (a fortiori tacit one) would fail if nothing was done.<br/>MATiK is introduced as an original communication system satisfying determined requirements for optimized information sharing in an interdisciplinary workgroup. This introduction is done by pointing out the lack of currently existing systems: there is no consideration of the link between message content and user’s specificities. This link is shown as a solution for information flow optimization.<br/>Then, a similarity concept, the loft, is introduced in order to explain the global operating procedure of MATiK, i.e. its information flow management. This ideation process, through highly subjective similarity concept, is favoring Kansei design approach. Next step of MATiK design will be presented in further publications.
Sanabria, J.C., Lévy, P., & Lee, S.H. (2003). Illustrative Industrial Interactions Through Kansei – Towards a dynamic reflection of Kansei in the Marketing/Design/Engineering relationship. In H., Aoki (Eds.), the Proceedings of 6th Asian Design International Conference - 6thADC ([on CD]). Tsukuba, Japan: University of Tsukuba.
publications 29 October 2003 2003-10-29T17:08:49+01:00 The industry of product conception mainly involves decision makers from the fields of marketing, design and engineering. In this study, the perception of the information through this process that influences the decision makers was analyzed through a survey riding on a Kansei approach. This approach emphasizes the influence of the professionals’ personality and characteristics. The subjects’ average perception of the concepts was retrieved through positioning them into a map without considering their individual influence. On a second phase, it was showed that the lack of issues, such as personality or individual characteristics, limited the possibilities of the map. The analysis began with the definition of the fields marketing, design, engineering, and Kansei, and a brain- storming for obtaining the keywords related to the three fields interaction. The resulting keywords were redefined and distributed on a pilot-map with an x-axis divided into user/product, and a y-axis divided into tangible/intangible. For validating the pilot-map the same survey was applied to professionals involved in marketing, design and engineering and the results were projected originally into an average map without considering personal data. On account of the limited information retrieved on this map, a group of wider maps was generated considering personality and characteristics.<br/>Integrating the Kansei approach by considering personality of the subjects, improved the possibilities of the model and gave rise to a source of flexible patterns of information that improved the understanding of the industrial environment relationships. In the future, the final mapping system may be used as an observation tool for magnifying the different possible intersections and patterns between the professionals involved in the fields of marketing, design and engineering and as a platform for further analysis of industrial interaction.
Lévy, P. (2002). Design industriel et interdisciplinarité – Méthode et outil d'intégration de l'interdisciplinarité dans la formation pédagogique initiale du design industriel. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France
publications 30 June 2002 2002-06-30T15:35:08+02:00 Le design industriel est une activité créatrice, qui s’inspire de connaissances ayants des origines variées, et dont l’objectif est d’établir les qualités multiples des objets, des processus, des services et de leurs systèmes durant leur cycle de vie complet. Ainsi, le design est un facteur central pour l’ ‘humanisation innovante’ des technologies et un facteur crucial des échanges culturels et économiques.<br/>La communauté académique est unanimement d’accord pour affirmer que le design possède pour ‘objectif secondaire’ important de mieux comprendre le résultat de son travail: l’objet. Une orientation de type interdisciplinaire du design industriel peut l’amener à accomplir cet ‘objectif secondaire’. L’ ‘attitude interdisciplinaire’ n’est pas étrangère au design industriel. Depuis plus de soixante-dix ans, le design est souvent allé chercher les connaissances et les outils de disciplines variées afin de développer – et de résoudre – les problématiques auxquelles il s’est trouvé confronté.<br/>L’objectif de cette recherche est de montrer qu’une ‘attitude interdisciplinaire’ formalisée du design industriel peut lui permettre d’atteindre cet ‘objectif secondaire’ et d’en faire bénéficier la société dans son ensemble.